Thomas Westerman Wolf (born November 17, 1948) is an American politician and businessman serving as the 47th governor of Pennsylvania since 2015.[1] A member of the Democratic Party, he defeated Republican incumbent Tom Corbett in the 2014 gubernatorial election and was reelected in 2018 by a margin of 17.1%. Before his election as governor, Wolf was the secretary of the Pennsylvania Department of Revenue from April 2007 to November 2008 and an executive in his family-owned business.

Early life and education

Wolf was born and raised in Mount Wolf, Pennsylvania, the son of Cornelia Rohlman (née Westerman) (1923–2018) and William Trout Wolf (1921–2016), a business executive.[2][3][4] His hometown was named after his ancestor, who was the town’s postmaster.[5]

He was raised Methodist[6] but is now affiliated with the Episcopal Church.[7]

Wolf graduated from The Hill School, a boarding school in Pottstown, Pennsylvania, in 1967.[8] He went on to receive a B.A. in government,[9] magna cum laude, from Dartmouth College in 1972, an M.Phil. from the University of London in 1978,[10] and a Ph.D. in political science[11] from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1981.[12] While a student at Dartmouth, Wolf joined the Peace Corps and spent two years in India.[13][14][15]

After earning his Ph.D., his dissertation on the United States House of Representatives was named the best of 1981 by the American Political Science Association.[16] Wolf turned down an opportunity to interview for a tenure-track faculty position at Harvard University to begin his career at The Wolf Organization as manager of a True Value store owned by the company.[16]

He met his wife, Frances, at school and married her in 1975. They have two adult daughters.[17]

Business and early political career

Wolf purchased The Wolf Organization in 1985 with two partners. During the administration of Governor Robert P. Casey, Wolf served on an economic development board and on the Pennsylvania Legislative Commission on Urban Schools.[18]

After selling his company to a private equity firm in 2006, then-governor Ed Rendell nominated Wolf in January 2007 to be the secretary of revenue of Pennsylvania. He served in that position in Rendell’s cabinet from his April 2007 confirmation by the Pennsylvania State Senate until he resigned in November 2008.[11][12][14] He had planned to run for governor of Pennsylvania in the 2010 election, but ultimately did not in order to repurchase the Wolf Organization, which was facing bankruptcy.[11][14][18] Wolf continued to serve as an executive in The Wolf Organization until his election as governor. He served as chairman and chief executive officer until stepping down from the latter position in December 2013 to focus on his gubernatorial campaign[19] and from the board altogether in December 2014 after his election.[20]

Wolf chairs the York County United Way, the York County Community Foundation, the York College board of trustees, and the York County Chamber of Commerce. He has also been active in the York Jewish Community Center, the Memorial Hospital of York, and a regional public television system.[21]

Governor of Pennsylvania

2014 election

On April 2, 2013, Wolf announced his candidacy for governor of Pennsylvania in the 2014 election. He pledged $10 million of his own money toward the primary election, with an intent to raise at least $5 million from supporters. He was the third person to announce candidacy, after John Hanger of the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection and Max Meyers, a minister from Cumberland County, but at least four others were expected to join the race.[22]

By March 2014, several polls suggested Wolf was the front-runner in the race for the Democratic nomination after an extensive television campaign.[23][24] A February 2014 Franklin & Marshall College poll showed him with a 27-point lead over his nearest competitor, Allyson Schwartz,[25] and a Harper poll showed him leading Schwartz by 26 points,[26] as did a late March 2014 Franklin & Marshall poll.[27]

In late April and early May, Wolf faced attacks from fellow candidate Rob McCord over his association with controversial former York, Pennsylvania, mayor Charlie Robertson.[28] Schwartz accused Wolf’s campaign of plagiarizing his “Fresh Start” plan from an energy equipment company.[29] Despite the attacks, a Muhlenberg College/Morning Call poll suggested Wolf continued to lead with 38% to Schwartz’s 13% and McCord’s 11%.[30]

Wolf takes the oath of office as Governor on January 20, 2015.

In the May 20 primary, Wolf defeated Schwartz, McCord, and Katie McGinty to win the Democratic nomination. He faced incumbent Republican Governor Tom Corbett in the November general election.[31] Heading into the final two months of the campaign, a number of polls indicated a varying but consistent advantage for Wolf over Corbett. Although Corbett slightly narrowed the deficit as the election approached, Wolf maintained a lead in the race.[32][33][34][35] On November 4, Wolf was elected governor with 54.9% of the vote.[36][37] His victory was notable for engaging traditionally Republican areas of the state. Insiders have attributed this phenomenon to Regional Field Director Brendan Murray and his extensive relationship network in north-central Pennsylvania.[38] Wolf is the first challenger to oust a sitting governor of Pennsylvania since the state’s governors became eligible for immediate reelection in 1968.

First term

Governor Wolf as he signs an executive order to ban fracking in state parks on January 29, 2015, while others look on.

Wolf took office as Pennsylvania’s 47th governor upon the expiration of Corbett’s term on January 20, 2015, with the inaugural ceremony occurring in front of the Pennsylvania State Capitol in Harrisburg.[39] Upon taking office, he opted not to move into the Pennsylvania Governor’s Residence but instead commute from his home in York. A spokesman for Wolf said the residence would still be used for official events and other functions.[40] Shortly after being sworn in, Wolf signed two executive orders banning gifts to state employees and requiring a bidding process for outside legal contracts.[41] Wolf also restored a ban on hydraulic fracturing, or “fracking”, in state parks[42] and placed a moratorium on the death penalty in Pennsylvania.[43] The most significant executive action in his first days in office was his move to fully expand Medicaid under the Affordable Care Act.

Wolf proposed his first budget in March 2015, which included an increase in education spending, reductions in property taxes and the corporate tax, and a new severance tax on natural gas.[44] Six months into his tenure, in July 2015, the websites OnTheIssues and InsideGov named Wolf the most liberal incumbent governor in the nation, based on a rating of public statements and press releases among other measures; Wolf rejected this assessment, arguing that his policies were directed by practicality rather than ideology.[45][46]

On July 1, 2015, Wolf vetoed a budget the Pennsylvania General Assembly submitted to him, causing a budget dispute between the governor’s office and the legislature. This marked the first time a Pennsylvania governor vetoed a budget bill in its entirety since Milton Shapp did so in 1976.[47] Wolf argued the budget was not balanced, disputing Republicans’ claim that it would provide increased funding in certain areas without raising taxes.[48][49] A point of dispute in the budget process was the proposed privatization of Pennsylvania’s wine and liquor sales, which Wolf opposed.[50] The state operated without a full budget for 267 days—the longest period without a full budget in Pennsylvania history—until the 2015-16 budget became law without Wolf’s signature in March 2016.[51][52]

Wolf’s first gubernatorial portrait

In January 2016, at Elizabethtown College, Wolf announced the launch of the “It’s On Us PA” campaign, which aims to expand awareness of sexual assault in schools and on college campuses.[53] Pennsylvania was the first state to implement a statewide campaign that called for a collaboration of schools, law enforcement, victim services organizations, and other community members to promote awareness, education, and bystander intervention of sexual violence specifically on school campuses.[54] Several schools, including Franklin and Marshall College and Butler County Community College, and Pennsylvania State System of Higher Education Chancellor Frank Brogan signed on to the initiative. On November 30, 2016, Wolf announced the awarding of “It’s On Us PA” grants of $1 million to 36 post-secondary schools in the state to combat sexual violence on their campuses. Programs considered for funding included but were not limited to those that enhanced awareness of available resources as well as the rights of students and, most importantly, to increase mechanisms for anonymous reporting.[55]

Wolf has expressed his opposition to targeting countries with economic sanctions or boycotts, saying, “We … will not encourage economic punishment in place of peaceful solutions to challenging conflicts”[56] (he later singled out Russia as an exception to this policy and immediately declared his support for sanctions and divestment from Russia after the 2022 invasion of Ukraine during his second term[57]).

Wolf signed into law bills that legalized medical marijuana in Pennsylvania, reformed pensions, and expanded the number of offenses former criminal defendants could get sealed, among other legislation.

On February 24, 2016, Wolf announced that he had been diagnosed with prostate cancer. Because it was diagnosed early, he said it would not hinder his ability to work.[58] After treatment, Wolf’s spokesperson announced in January 2017 that Wolf’s physician had given him a “clean bill of health”.[59]

Wolf declared Pennsylvania’s heroin and opioid addiction crisis a statewide emergency in January 2018. Pennsylvania became the eighth state to do so. Such a declaration lets Pennsylvania officials “override any current rules or regulations they perceive as hampering the state’s ability to address the opioid epidemic”.[60]

2018 election

Wolf ran for reelection in 2018 and was unopposed in the Democratic primary.[61] He defeated Republican State Senator Scott Wagner in the November 8 general election with about 57% of the vote.[62] He is the first Pennsylvania governor to win election twice while losing both times in his home county (since 1968, when a new state constitution permitted governors to run for consecutive terms).[63]

Second term

In 2019, Wolf signed reforms into law that would allow no-excuse mail-in ballot voting.[64]

On June 23, 2020, State Representative Daryl Metcalfe and 24 co-sponsors introduced five articles of impeachment in House Resolution 915 against Wolf based on charges that he damaged Pennsylvania’s economy and exceeded his authority by unilaterally and unlawfully imposing his mitigation orders amid the COVID-19 pandemic.[65][66] The bill was referred to the House Judiciary Committee but moved no further.[67] On September 14, 2020, District Court Judge William S. Stickman IV ruled that the restrictions Wolf imposed during the pandemic were unconstitutional, violating the right to freedom of assembly guaranteed by the First Amendment.[68][69] State officials asked Stickman to delay his ruling by while they appealed, but he declined.[70] The United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit later stayed the decision, allowing the restrictions to resume.[71]

In September and October 2020, Wolf held a series of press conferences making the case for legalizing recreational cannabis in Pennsylvania, arguing that the reform was particularly needed in light of the economic downturn caused by COVID-19 and the prospect of losing revenue to New Jersey, which had recently legalized cannabis.[72][73][74] Wolf first came out for legalization in 2019 after a statewide listening tour by Lieutenant Governor John Fetterman showed broad support for legalization.[75]

Republican lawmakers brought two questions limiting Wolf’s gubernatorial powers to a statewide vote on May 18, 2021, limiting disaster declarations from 90 to 21 days, transferring power to extend emergency orders from the governor to the state legislature and permitting a simple majority of the legislature to terminate such a declaration at any time. Both passed, with publications declaring the measures victorious with 52% of the vote on May 19, making Pennsylvania the first state to approve a curb on a governor’s emergency powers since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic.[76][77]

Electoral history

2014 Democratic gubernatorial primary results[78]
PartyCandidateVotes%
Democratic Tom Wolf 488,917 57.86
DemocraticAllyson Schwartz149,02717.64
DemocraticRob McCord142,31116.84
DemocraticKathleen McGinty64,7547.66
Total votes845,009 100
2014 Pennsylvania gubernatorial election[79]
PartyCandidateVotes%
Democratic Tom Wolf 1,920,355 54.93
RepublicanTom Corbett (incumbent)1,575,51145.07
Total votes3,495,866 100
Democratic gain from Republican
2018 Pennsylvania gubernatorial election[80]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
DemocraticTom Wolf (incumbent)
John Fetterman
2,895,652 57.77% +2.84%
RepublicanScott Wagner
Jeff Bartos
2,039,88240.70%-4.37%
LibertarianKen Krawchuk
Kathleen Smith
49,2290.98%N/A
GreenPaul Glover
Jocolyn Bowser-Bostick
27,7920.55%N/A
Total votes5,012,555 100.00% N/A
Democratic hold

References

  1. ^ “Sen. Harris Wofford’s Advisory Committee on Judicial and U.S. Attorney Nominations for the Middle District”. Times Leader. Archived from the original on October 18, 2014. Retrieved October 18, 2014.
  2. ^ “Tom Wolf Profile: Perfect Stranger”. Philadelphia Magazine.
  3. ^ “Notices”. York Gazette and Daily. Retrieved October 18, 2014.
  4. ^ Who’s who in Finance and Industry. Marquis Who’s Who. 1987. Retrieved October 18, 2014.
  5. ^ Fitzgerald, Thomas (May 12, 2014). “Tom Wolf seeks to bring small-town ethos to gubernatorial race”. Philly.com. Retrieved October 18, 2014.
  6. ^ Esack, Steve (May 9, 2014). “Tom Wolf runs as gentleman politician”. The Morning Call. Retrieved October 18, 2014.
  7. ^ McColgan, Flint (January 17, 2015). “Tom Wolf’s Inauguration Day activities begin in York and end in Hershey”. Lebanon Daily News. Archived from the original on January 28, 2015. Retrieved January 24, 2015.
  8. ^ “Hill alumnus Tom Wolf ’67 elected Pennsylvania Governor”. The Hill School. Retrieved January 25, 2015.
  9. ^ O’Toole, James (October 12, 2014). “As Tom Wolf seeks the Pennsylvania governor’s office, political life comes full circle”. Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved July 29, 2015.
  10. ^ Lundquist, Paulette (August 4, 2020). “Tom Wolf Biographical Data”. The Hill. Retrieved July 22, 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  11. ^ a b c O’Toole, James (March 13, 2014). “York’s Wolf spending own fortune in his bid for governor”. Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved March 13, 2014.
  12. ^ a b “About Us – Thomas W. Wolf, Secretary”. www.revenue.state.pa.us. Pennsylvania Department of Revenue. Archived from the original on August 10, 2007.
  13. ^ “2014 Election Watch”. Committee of Seventy. Archived from the original on February 25, 2014. Retrieved March 13, 2014.
  14. ^ a b c Sidhu, Sonia (September 17, 2013). “Penn Dems to host Pa. gov candidate Tom Wolf”. The Daily Pennsylvanian. Retrieved March 13, 2014.
  15. ^ Steinhauer, Jennifer (January 23, 2015). “Pennsylvania’s Governor Breaks Through a G.O.P. Tide”. The New York Times. Retrieved January 25, 2015.
  16. ^ a b Klein, Julia M. “The Unlikely Governor”. Dartmouth Alumni Magazine. Retrieved December 12, 2016.
  17. ^ “Meet Tom Wolf”. Tom Wolf for Governor. Retrieved March 14, 2014.
  18. ^ a b “Tom Wolf says he won’t run for governor”. York Daily Record. February 4, 2009. Archived from the original on March 15, 2014. Retrieved March 14, 2014.
  19. ^ Levy, Marc (March 5, 2014). “Company gives info in Democrat’s race for Pa. gov”. Associated Press. Retrieved March 14, 2014.
  20. ^ Field, Nick (November 7, 2014). “PA-Gov Round-Up: The End”. PoliticsPA. Retrieved November 9, 2014.
  21. ^ “Thomas W. Wolf”. Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved March 14, 2014.
  22. ^ Gibson, Keegan (April 2, 2013). “Wolf Declares for Gov, Pledges $10 Mil to Campaign”. PoliticsPA. Retrieved April 22, 2013.
  23. ^ O’Toole, James (March 6, 2014). “Pittsburgh-area leaders expected to back Tom Wolf”. Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved March 13, 2014.
  24. ^ Smith, Vincent J. (March 8, 2014). “PA-Gov: Pittsburgh Politicos Back Wolf”. PoliticsPA. Retrieved March 13, 2014.
  25. ^ “Franklin & Marshall College Poll” (PDF). Franklin & Marshall College. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 26, 2014. Retrieved March 13, 2014.
  26. ^ “Pennsylvania Democratic Primary Poll”. Harper Polling. Retrieved March 13, 2014.
  27. ^ Durantine, Pete. “FM Poll: Wolf Holds Lead in Democratic Primary”. Franklin & Marshall College. Retrieved April 6, 2014.
  28. ^ Foster, Brittany (May 2, 2014). “PA-Gov: McCord Releases Chilling Negative Ad Against Wolf”. PoliticsPA. Retrieved May 4, 2014.
  29. ^ Foster, Brittany (April 24, 2014). “PA-Gov: Schwartz Accuses Wolf of Plagiarizing “Fresh Start” Plan”. PoliticsPA. Retrieved May 4, 2014.
  30. ^ “Poll: Wolf maintains lead in Democratic governor race”. The Morning Call. Retrieved May 4, 2014.
  31. ^ Foster, Brittany (May 20, 2014). “PA-Gov: Wolf Wins Democratic Nomination”. PoliticsPA. Retrieved May 21, 2014.
  32. ^ “National Poll Report” (PDF). Robert Morris University Polling Institute. Retrieved September 6, 2014.
  33. ^ “Franklin & Marshall College Poll” (PDF). Franklin & Marshall College. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 4, 2014. Retrieved September 6, 2014.
  34. ^ “Pennsylvania Statewide Poll September 2–3, 2014”. Harper Polling. Retrieved September 6, 2014.
  35. ^ “Pennsylvania Governor Poll October 26–27, 2014”. Harper Polling. Retrieved November 9, 2014.
  36. ^ Lavender, Paige (November 4, 2014). “Pennsylvania Governor Election Results: Tom Wolf Defeats Incumbent Tom Corbett”. Huffington Post. Retrieved November 5, 2014.
  37. ^ “NBC News Projects: PA’s Corbett Ousted by Democrat Tom Wolf”. NBC News. November 4, 2014. Retrieved November 5, 2014.
  38. ^ Owens, Leigh. “Field Organizer Brendan Murray balances caring for his ailing mother while campaigning”. Tom Wolf for Governor. Retrieved October 16, 2019.
  39. ^ Jackson, Peter (January 20, 2015). “WOLF TO TAKE AS PENNSYLVANIA GOVERNOR; STACK SWORN IN AS LT. GOVERNOR”. Associated Press. Retrieved January 20, 2015.
  40. ^ McKelvey, Wallace (December 9, 2014). “Governor’s Residence to remain open, even as Tom Wolf plans commute to Harrisburg”. Harrisburg Patriot-News. Retrieved January 20, 2015.
  41. ^ McKelvey, Wallace (January 20, 2015). “Wolf’s first actions include gift ban, required bidding on legal contracts”. Harrisburg Patriot-News. Retrieved January 20, 2015.
  42. ^ Finley, Ben (January 31, 2015). “Wolf restores fracking ban in state parkland”. The Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved February 15, 2015.
  43. ^ Slobodzian, Joseph (February 13, 2015). “Wolf halts death penalty in Pa”. The Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved February 14, 2015.
  44. ^ Kanuch, Nathan (March 11, 2015). “PA-Gov: Wolf Presents Budget Legislation”. PoliticsPA. Retrieved March 27, 2015.
  45. ^ Field, Nick (July 31, 2015). “PA-Gov: Wolf Rated Most Liberal Governor in U.S.” PoliticsPA. Retrieved August 11, 2015.
  46. ^ Hardison, Lizzy (August 11, 2015). “PA-Gov: Wolf Rejects “Most Liberal” Ranking”. PoliticsPA. Retrieved August 11, 2015.
  47. ^ Alexandersen, Christian (June 30, 2015). “Gov. Tom Wolf vetoes Republican budget proposal. Now what?”. The Harrisburg Patriot-News. Retrieved August 11, 2015.
  48. ^ Field, Nick (July 1, 2015). “PA-BGT: Wolf Vetoes Budget”. PoliticsPA. Retrieved August 11, 2015.
  49. ^ Alexandersen, Christian (June 27, 2015). “Pa. House passes GOP-created budget proposal to the dismay of Democrats”. The Harrisburg Patriot-News. Retrieved August 11, 2015.
  50. ^ Langley, Karen (July 2, 2015). “Wolf vetoes GOP liquor privatization bill for Pennsylvania”. The Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved August 11, 2015.
  51. ^ Addy, Jason (January 21, 2016). “Wolf: Year One”. PoliticsPA. Retrieved January 21, 2016.
  52. ^ Addy, Jason (March 23, 2016). “PA-BGT: PA Gets a Budget”. PoliticsPA. Retrieved May 16, 2016.
  53. ^ Printz v. United States
  54. ^ Garcia, Deanna. “Pennsylvania Implements National ‘It’s On Us’ Sexual Assault Initiative”. Retrieved December 9, 2016.
  55. ^ “Wolf Administration Awards First-ever ‘It’s On Us PA’ Grants to Combat Campus Sexual Assault | GantNews.com”. gantdaily.com. November 30, 2016. Retrieved December 9, 2016.
  56. ^ “Governor Wolf Signs Bill Prohibiting State from Contracting with Businesses that Boycott Israel”. November 4, 2016.
  57. ^ “Gov. Wolf: Pennsylvania Stands with Ukraine, Will Continue Supportive Actions and Efforts to Sever Financial Ties with Russia”. March 7, 2022.
  58. ^ “Tom Wolf, Pennsylvania governor, diagnosed with prostate cancer”. CNN. February 24, 2016. Retrieved February 25, 2016.
  59. ^ McKelvey, Wallace (January 25, 2017). “Gov. Tom Wolf wins cancer fight, gets ‘clean bill of health’. Harrisburg Patriot-News. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
  60. ^ Couloumbis, Angela; Navratil, Liz. “Gov. Wolf to declare opioid emergency in Pennsylvania”. Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved January 9, 2018.
  61. ^ “Primary results for Pennsylvania’s House, Senate, and governor races”. Vox. Retrieved August 12, 2018.
  62. ^ Levy, Mark (November 6, 2018). “Tom Wolf wins Pa. governor’s race”. Associated Press. Retrieved November 8, 2018.
  63. ^ Segelbaum, Dylan (November 7, 2018). “Gov. Tom Wolf cruises to re-election but — again — loses York County”. York Daily Record. USA Today. Retrieved November 12, 2018.
  64. ^ “Key swing state warns of November election ‘nightmare’. POLITICO. Retrieved May 24, 2020.
  65. ^ “PA Lawmaker To Gov. Tom Wolf: Resign or Be Impeached”. PA Patch. July 17, 2020. Retrieved August 30, 2020.
  66. ^ Gibson, Bret (June 16, 2020). “Rep. Daryl Metcalfe reveals 5 articles of impeachment against Gov. Tom Wolf”. Trib Live. Retrieved December 10, 2020.
  67. ^ “Pennsylvania General Assembly House Resolution 915, Session of 2020”. TrackBill. June 23, 2020. Retrieved December 10, 2020.
  68. ^ Reed Ward, Paula (September 14, 2020). “Federal judge rules Gov. Wolf’s shutdown orders were unconstitutional | TribLIVE.com”. Trib Live. Retrieved December 29, 2020.
  69. ^ Coleman, Justine (September 14, 2020). “Federal judge rules Pennsylvania’s coronavirus orders are unconstitutional”. The Hill. Retrieved December 29, 2020.
  70. ^ “Judge declines to stay ruling on Pennsylvania crowd size”. Associated Press. September 22, 2020. Retrieved June 15, 2021.
  71. ^ Rubinkam, Michael (October 1, 2020). “Appeals court allows Pennsylvania to restrict crowd size”. Associated Press. Retrieved June 15, 2021.
  72. ^ Tierney, Jacob (September 3, 2020). “Gov. Wolf renews call for legal recreational marijuana”. triblive.com. Retrieved June 1, 2021.
  73. ^ Murphy, Jan (September 16, 2020). ‘The time to end prohibition against cannabis has come’; advocates call for action in Pa. on marijuana legalization”. pennlive.com. Retrieved June 1, 2021.
  74. ^ Bresswein, Kurt (October 13, 2020). “Wolf, in Monroe County, calls a 3rd time for legalizing adult-use recreational marijuana”. lehighvalleylive.com. Retrieved June 1, 2021.
  75. ^ Murphy, Jan (September 25, 2019). “Gov. Tom Wolf calls for legalizing recreational marijuana in Pennsylvania”. pennlive.com. Retrieved June 1, 2021.
  76. ^ Levy, Marc; Rubinkam, Michael (May 19, 2021). “Pennsylvania voters impose new limits on governor’s powers”. Associated Press. Retrieved May 19, 2021.
  77. ^ Hughes, Sarah Anne (May 19, 2021). “Pennsylvania voters backed curtailing Gov. Tom Wolf’s emergency powers in a win for Republican lawmakers”. The Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved May 19, 2021.
  78. ^ “2014 General Primary – Governor”. Pennsylvania Department of State. Retrieved January 18, 2015.
  79. ^ “2014 General Election”. Elections Information. Pennsylvania Department of State. November 4, 2014. Archived from the original on October 6, 2014. Retrieved November 5, 2014.
  80. ^ “2018 General Election Official Returns”. Pennsylvania Department of State. November 6, 2018. Retrieved October 3, 2019.

External links

Party political offices
Preceded by

Democratic nominee for Governor of Pennsylvania
2014, 2018
Succeeded by

Political offices
Preceded by

Governor of Pennsylvania
2015–present
Incumbent
U.S. order of precedence (ceremonial)
Preceded by

as Vice President

Order of precedence of the United States
Within Pennsylvania
Succeeded by

Mayor of city
in which event is held
Succeeded by

Preceded by

as Governor of Delaware

Order of precedence of the United States
Outside Pennsylvania
Succeeded by

as Governor of New Jersey